The beginning of the 21st century was marked by the fact, that after all, the humanity realized the latter-day problem of the ecological safety, logically appearing as a consequence of using so-called intensive-technologies in the agriculture. Such technologies included mostly unjustified applying of the chemicals.
The awareness of this fact caused the active development of the organic farming production all over the world; the abrupt growth of the customer demand for the organic agricultural product; the appearance of the new technologies in the manufacturing of the agricultural production.
It is thought that the transfer to the eco-friendly farming takes not less than 2 years and entails the loss of the crop yield during this period. As a matter of fact, until recently, the agricultural producers, basing on the eco-friendly methods of farming, had to take this fact into their account. Though, the new methods of the eco-friendly farming, including nanotechnologies, allow increasing the soil enrichment and grow high quality products without passing through the time period, mentioned above. The issue is about the unique developments, made by the specialists of the SP “Cinta” LLC, enabling to produce potting soils, containing natural silicon-including minerals for different types of soils.
The understanding of the processes that progress in the ground, their influence on the essence of the physiological processes, going on in organisms of plants, as well as the understanding of defense mechanism, functioning in the plants against biotic and abiotic stressful factors in different conditions of the environment and with the change of the mineral nutrition conditions
– All these are the basement for the development and use of the potting soils, made by the SP “Cinta” LLC.
The plants are unique organisms. Their specials lies, first of all, in the fact, that they are the only organisms on the planet, being able to use solar energy, produce a great variety of organic compounds with different characteristics and activity, from inorganic compounds. This very ability of the plants allows all other organisms, including human beings, to exist on the planet.
People began to use this special of the plants from the moment of switching to sedentary life and agriculture. By creating comfortable conditions for the growth and development of plants (exploring farming techniques), choosing the most resilient and productive species from the population (creating varieties), the human unconsciously tries to use the information, encoded into the genotype with the maximum profit. Though, in spite of a thousand year history of agriculture, nowadays cultivated plants can realize no more than 25-30% of the genetic potential, including those mechanisms of protection thanks to which the entirety of the pant body under the influence of the stressful factors of the biotic (insects, blasts, microorganism) and abiotic (high or low temperatures, drought etc.) factors of the nature is preserved.
Often, defense mechanisms of plants cannot work out immediately as the plant requires time to distinguish the stress factors (who damages it), and to search for the most optimal protection (to put into action the consequence of the reactions for the synthesis of some or other substances, being able to resist the stress). During this time, the plants can become so strong that their defense mechanisms will abruptly decrease, and the work of the defense mechanisms was already useless.
As a rule, the plant’s speed of response depends from its general state, the conditions of the environment, which includes the current situation of mineral nutrition. It is known that some inorganic compounds, in particular silicic ones, play an important role in the acceleration of the processes “distinguishing stress factors”.
The plants absorb slick compounds” through their root system and lamina, storing it, mainly, in the form of the water-soluble mono- and polysilicic acids.
The main function of silicon is to provide the protection of the organism from abiotic and biotic stresses. Plants are able to redistribute silicon inside their body, and obtain the mechanisms, supplying its stable redistribution between stress-susceptible organs and tissues. Its content in the soil depends of many factors, among which the determinative one for the monosilicic acid is the balance of the silicon for the plant association in the upper soil horizon, while for the polysilicic acid, the main factor is the matter and the constitution of the soil matrix.
The main flush of silicon in the ground systems is carried through the absorption of monosilicic acid by the plants, with its further transformation into polysilicic acids and amorphous silica.
Monosilicic acid is a weak acid, having buffering properties when pH ~ 7. Monosilicic acid reacts with metals and non-metals. When the concentration is high, acid can build complexes with organic and inorganic compounds. The changes in the content of monosilicic acid in the ground, influences the activity of soil biota and also the stability and targeting of the evolution in plan association.
Macromolecular polysilicic acids mostly influence physico-chemical soil characteristics. Newly formed macromolecular polysilicic acids (silicic gel) has the unique ability to preserve information about any other compound or molecule, placed in the solute, due to it, the specific silicon matrix is created. Such matrix has catalytic qualities and promotes the low-temperature synthesis of the substance that was present during the formation of the slick gel of polysilicic acid.
The increasing shortage of silicon provokes the row of negative consequences as the given element is not only a fertilizer element but also a constitutional soil element. The shortage of silicic acids leads to the destruction of organo-mineral complex, accelerates the degeneracy of the soil organic matter, worsens the mineral composition, and encourages the development of phytotoxic microorganisms.
The main function of silicon, containing in plants, is the increasing of organism resistance to the unfavorable conditions. It is released thought the thickening of ecderonic tissues and input of lignification tissues (mechanical defense), the acceleration of the growth and development of the plants as a result of intensification of the photosynthesis process (physiological defense), complexation of the toxic compounds (chemical defense), and increasing of biochemical resistance to the stresses, including the ones on the molecular genetic level (biochemical defense).
The special importance of silicon lies in the increase of plant’s resistance to the biotic (fungus diseases, attacks of injurious insects) and abiotic factors (low temperatures, drought, salinity and aluminium toxicity, heavy metals pollution, hydrocarbon pollution) stresses. This allows using the active forms of silicon as eco-friendly alternative to pesticides. New technologies with the usage of silicon –containing minerals are essential for the solution of such global problem as the lack of fresh water. The results of our researches prove that the use of silicon-containing compounds allow to increase the drought tolerance of plants, and decrease the water flow charges in 30-45%.
Silicon-containing minerals play an important in the increasing of the effectiveness of the traditional mineral fertilizers. According to our data, when phosphate fertilizers are applied together with the minerals, the amount of them can be lowered to 50-60% without the loss of crop yield. Meanwhile, the threat to pollute the natural water with phosphates and impurities, containing in the mineral fertilizers, abruptly decreases. It is proved, that the participation of active forms of silicon in the inhibition processes of nitrification, and respectively, it assists the more rational usage of nitrogen fertilizers, especially calurea.